Exploratory Questions (OPTIONAL) There are a number of specific environmental problems that can hinder human health and well-being. These problems include chemical pollution, air pollution, climate change, disease-causing microbes, lack of access to health care, poor infrastructure and poor water quality. Different chemicals can affect human health in different ways and, often, exposure to hazardous or foreign substances creates health vulnerabilities. The field of chemical safety is concerned with minimizing the effects of natural and synthetic chemicals.
More specifically, chemical safety seeks to protect human and environmental health from exposure to potential toxins; it focuses on chemicals that exist in the environmental world, as well as on synthetic chemicals that are used in industrial processes or are by-products of manufacturing activity. Public health officials working in chemical safety often focus on toxicology, which is the study of substances that have a toxic effect on the human body, whether ingested or absorbed in a natural environment. Another important aspect of public health is chemical risk assessment, which involves scientists and doctors working to determine all the biological effects of a substance. More resources on chemical safety Studies have shown that the effects of air pollution on humans are a major public health problem, not only because of their role in climate change, but also because exposure to air pollution can increase morbidity and mortality.
More resources on the effects of air pollution on humans More resources on climate change and natural disasters Diseases caused by microbes, also known as microorganisms, represent another area of public health concern. There are trillions of microbes in the human body and they also live in water, soil and air. Most of them have no negative health effects and many microbes perform important biological functions, such as supporting digestive and immune health, according to the National Institute for Human Genome Research. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are types of microbes.
Harmful microbes, more commonly referred to as pathogens or germs, can infect humans and cause illness. Eating is one of the main ways in which humans can contract diseases caused by microbes. An example is food poisoning by E. Coli, a type of bacteria that can be found in the environment and in food, and can cause respiratory diseases, urinary tract infections and other adverse health effects.
More resources on diseases caused by microbes Another environmental factor that contributes to diseases and poor health outcomes in general is living in an area with a lack of access to health services. According to Healthy People, “many people face barriers that prevent or limit access to necessary health care services, which can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and health disparities. Some factors that contribute to the lack of access to health care include economic instability, unreliable transportation to clinical facilities, and a simple lack of education about the importance of preventive care. The conservation value of the sites must match the types of recreational activities that are appropriate.
For example, high-impact recreational activities (cars, bicycles, horses, etc.). The relative conservation value and, therefore, the types of use that may be appropriate are often made explicit through the use of zoning systems, including the recognition of wilderness areas. Information on the potential resilience and resilience of a site can be obtained not only from recreational ecology studies, but also by accessing more general literature on ecosystem recovery from a variety of human and natural disturbances. For example, high-altitude (Alpine) and high-latitude (Arctic) communities are generally considered to recover more slowly from disturbances than those with more energy in the system (temperate, subtropical and tropical communities) (Liddle 1997; Growcock and Pickering in press).
However, it is important to remember that the level of disturbance in an ecosystem may be so high that it may not return to its pre-disturbance state (Newsome et al. Some ecosystems are less able to fully recover from disturbances, and secondary succession may result in only partial recovery or in a completely different ecosystem than before the disturbance (Newsome et al. An obvious indicator that a site has exceeded its tolerance to a particular type of use and that recovery may be limited or may result in a different state is soil erosion. Soil loss at a site has long-term effects, since it reduces the regeneration capacity of vegetation, especially when it is so severe that the bedrock is exposed.
Most research on recreational ecology has examined the direct impacts of different types of activities, and far fewer studies document the severity of indirect impacts (Newsome et al. However, compared to direct impacts, indirect impacts can be even more severe, can occur over a wider area and are more likely to be self-sustainable (i.e.,. One of the most important indirect impacts is the spread of weeds (Newsome et al. Through strategic efforts to improve environmental health, public health professionals can improve the personal well-being of individuals, families and communities.
Therefore, those responsible for managing protected areas must balance access with impacts on the environment. The benefits of environmental health interventions can improve everyone's life, but they can have the most pronounced effect on those who already have vulnerable health. In addition to true monogenic genetic disorders, environmental factors can determine the development of the disease in people genetically predisposed to a particular condition. As Healthy People points out, “poor environmental quality has its greatest impact on people whose health status is already at risk.
The visitor experience when accessing a protected area at times of low use can be very different from that of times of high use, even if the facilities offered by the park and the environment are the same. When environmental scientists talk about air pollution, they describe any solid or liquid particle, as well as gases, that are suspended in the air and have harmful or poisonous effects. Environmental health researchers say that climate change can cause changes in disease patterns, making communities susceptible to different diseases. In conclusion, it can be seen how socio-economic factors at any level play a role in the consequences of human actions on the environment.
Another environmental factor that contributes to diseases and poor health outcomes in general is living in an area with a lack of access to health services. As a result, much more environmental damage can occur during peak usage than the total annual usage figures would indicate. The main cause of this environmental problem is the increase in volumes of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane released by the burning of fossil fuels, emissions from vehicles, industries and other human activities. An environmental factor, an ecological factor or an ecological factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Professionals in the field of environmental health examine how people interact with the world around them and relate the many ways in which these interactions can affect physical fitness, vulnerability to disease, and other aspects of human well-being. . .